Descartes essay

If such sensations are just dreams, then it is not really the case that you are reading this article but in fact you are in bed asleep. Cogito ergo sum is a Latin philosophical proposition by René Descartes usually translated into English as “I think, therefore I am”. In 1619 Descartes began serious work on mathematical and mechanical problems under Beekman’s guidance and, finally, left the service of Maurice of Nassau, planning to travel through Germany to join the army of Maximilian of Bavaria. These same animal spirits would then dispose the body to move (for example, toward the ice cream parlor) in order to attain the goal of eating ice cream thereby satisfying this desire. In that letter, Descartes distinguishes between various primitive notions. Indeed, even the occasional deception of mathematical miscalculation also seems inconsistent with God’s goodness, yet people do sometimes make mistakes.

A well-known version of dualism is credited to Rene Descartes of the 17 th century. This asymmetry is found in the claim that particular minds are substances for Descartes but not particular bodies. These Notes were intended not only to refute what Descartes understood to be Regius’ false theses but also to distance himself from his former disciple, who had started a ruckus at Utrecht by making unorthodox claims about the nature of human beings. ” These Meditations are conducted from the first person perspective, from Descartes. Each of these scientific methods is slightly different but the first step common to both is for the investigator to rid his mind of preconception or bias. But the idea of God is the idea of an infinite substance.
This is because a finite substance does not have enough reality to be the cause of this idea, for if a finite substance were the cause of this idea, then where would it have gotten the extra reality. Accordingly, direct apprehension of clear, simple and indubitable truths (or axioms) by intuition and deductions from those truths can lead to new and indubitable knowledge. This reasoning establishes at least three important points. Based on this principle, the mind is better known than the body, because it has ideas about both extended and mental things and not just of extended things, and so it has discovered more modes in itself than in bodily substances. Instead, a human being, that is, a soul united with a body, would be a whole that is more than the sum of its parts.
Hence, in arguing for the real distinction between mind and body, Descartes is arguing that 1) the mind is a substance, 2) it can be clearly and distinctly understood without any other substance, including bodies, and 3) that God could create a mental substance all by itself without any other created substance. These are two different kinds of extended things, but they are extended things nonetheless. At the beginning of the Fourth Meditation, Descartes claims that the will to deceive is “undoubtedly evidence of malice or weakness” so as to be an imperfection. Here Descartes is rejecting the claim held by some that bodies have something over and above extension as part of their nature, namely impenetrability, while space is just penetrable extension in which impenetrable bodies are located. Hence, the idea of a supremely perfect being or God without existence is unintelligible. This would also mean that a human being is one thing instead of two things that causally interact through contact and motion as Elizabeth and Gassendi supposed.
One of the deepest and most lasting legacies of Descartes’ philosophy is his thesis that mind and body are really. No, for if I convinced myself that my beliefs are false, then surely there must be an “I” that was convinced. Hence, geometry’s rules of inference preserve absolutely certain truth from simple, indubitable and intuitively grasped axioms to their deductive consequences unlike the probable syllogisms of the Scholastics. Within the interpretation of what it is to be and of truth that was prepared by descartes. The second is the notion of the mind or soul, which includes the perceptions of the intellect and the inclinations of the will.
Instead, a human being, that is, a soul united with a body, would be a whole that is more than the sum of its parts. Cleverly designed automata could successfully mimic nearly all of what we do. Generations of students have read, and continue to read. Second, a real distinction is perceived when one substance can be clearly and distinctly understood without the other and vice versa.
Accuracy essay writer iphone essay app personal essay about your name essaying essays. Then, in line with the skeptics, Descartes supposes, for the sake of his method, that God does not exist, but instead there is an evil demon with supreme power and cunning that puts all his efforts into deceiving him so that he is always mistaken about everything, including mathematics. According to the Causal Adequacy Principle of the Third Meditation, this cause must have at least as much reality either formally or eminently as is contained objectively in the produced sensory idea. So Descartes is ultimately arguing for the possibility of minds or souls existing without bodies. These animal spirits then move the fibers extending to the brain through the tube of nerves causing the sensation of pain.

Descartes Essay

For to conceive of God with the will to deceive would be to conceive him to be both having no imperfections and having one imperfection, which is impossible; it would be like trying to conceive of a mountain without a valley. Descartes explains it best at Principles, part 1, section 60. The course of study was capped off with courses in metaphysics, natural philosophy and ethics. Of a paragraph about welsh christianity the third legacy of the romans was research essay. Accuracy essay writer iphone essay app personal essay about your name essaying essays. Sep 24, 2017 · René Descartes has long been credited with the near-single-handed creation of modern philosophy.
First, Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all knowledge. Descartes i think therefore i am essay 10 sentences on my mother essays Crle essay world. So, when Descartes argued for the implementation of his modern system of philosophy, breaks with the Scholastic tradition were not unprecedented. This explanation implies that the stone has knowledge of this goal, of the center of the earth and of how to get there. The main point was that the soul makes a human body truly human; that is, makes it a living human body and not merely a corpse. “Look: the residual taste is eliminated, the smell goes away, the color changes, the shape is lost, the size increases, it becomes liquid and hot” (AT VII 30: CSM II 20). In fact, people sometimes make mistakes about things they think are most certain such as mathematical calculations.
So God would be a deceiver, if there were a clear and distinct idea that was false, since the mind cannot help but believe them to be true. The most telling piece of textual evidence is found in a 1642 letter to Gibeuf:. The difficulty arises when it is noticed that sometimes the will moves the body, for example, the intention to ask a question in class causes the raising of your arm, and certain motions in the body cause the mind to have sensations. Rene descartes essay paper, rowena murray how to write a thesis, rutgers university. This objection is that the cause of a finite substance with the idea of God could also be a finite substance with the idea of God. This also implies that knowledge of God’s existence is required for having any absolutely certain knowledge.
The Second Meditation continues with Descartes asking, “What am I
It was during this time that he met Isaac Beekman, who was, perhaps, the most important influence on his early adulthood. The second component relates to the second maxim in that both pertain to firm and resolute action. So a body moving at a certain speed will continue to move at that speed indefinitely unless something comes along to change it. He arrived in Sweden in September 1649 where he was asked to rise at 5:00am to meet the Queen to discuss philosophy, contrary to his usual habit, developed at La Fleche, of sleeping in late. The crux of the difficulty lies in the claim that the respective natures of mind and body are completely different and, in some way, opposite from one another. Recall that in the First Meditation Descartes supposed that an evil demon was deceiving him.
This quasi-mathematical procedure for the achievement of knowledge is typical of a rationalistic approach to epistemology
This eventually inspired Descartes to write a treatise entitled The Passions of the Soul, which was published just before his departure to Sweden in 1649. Accordingly, it would no longer be the idea of a supremely perfect being but the idea of something with an imperfection, namely non-existence, and, therefore, it would no longer be the idea of God. But, as it is moved closer to the fire, all of these sensible qualities change. These considerations in general, and this quotation in particular, lead to another distinct feature of Cartesian body, namely that extension is infinitely divisible. However, although this may apply to sensations derived under certain circumstances, doesn’t it seem certain that “I am here, sitting by the fire, wearing a winter dressing gown, holding this piece of paper in my hands, and so on”. Intelligence: a history Intelligence has always been used.
This also implies that knowledge of God’s existence is required for having any absolutely certain knowledge. The principle expressed here is that any body considered all by itself tends to move in a straight line unless it collides with another body, which deflects it. This eventually inspired Descartes to write a treatise entitled The Passions of the Soul, which was published just before his departure to Sweden in 1649. Happiness is assured when this point is reached with certainty. Therefore, the first maxim is intended to provide Descartes with guides or touchstones that will most likely lead to the performance of morally good actions.
For example, the idea of a triangle can be examined and set aside at will, but its internal content cannot be manipulated so as to cease being the idea of a three-sided figure. Although an animal or machine may be capable of performing any one activity as well as (or even better than) we can, he argued, each human being is capable of a greater variety of different activities than could be performed by anything lacking a soul. Hence, if this problem cannot be resolved, then it could be used to imply that mind and body are not completely different but they must have something in common in order to facilitate this interaction. But this veridical guarantee gives rise to a serious problem within the Meditations, stemming from the claim that all clear and distinct ideas are ultimately guaranteed by God’s existence, which is not established until the Third Meditation. Hence the mind is an immaterial thinking substance, while its ideas are its modes or ways of thinking. How to write a reflective essay -.

Descartes Essay

Also, the actions of sensible people, who avoid the extremes and take the middle road, can provide a temporary guide to action until his moral beliefs have been established with absolute certainty. Descartes goes on to apply this principle to the cause of his ideas. Each of these scientific methods is slightly different but the first step common to both is for the investigator to rid his mind of preconception or bias.   “The Stuff that Dreams are Made Of”
<http://www.
In the late nineteenth century, Walter Begley discovered the correspondence of Anthony Bacon, the brother of Francis Bacon, in the Archiepiscopal library of Lambeth Palace, London. It was Beekman who rekindled Descartes’ interest in science and opened his eyes to the possibility of applying mathematical techniques to other fields. To warrant this judgment, something that does not change must have been perceived in the wax. In fact, Aristotelianism was so entrenched in the intellectual institutions of Descartes’ time that commentators argued that evidence for its the truth could be found in the Bible. In the Principles, part I, sections 32 and 48, Descartes distinguishes intellectual perception and volition as what properly belongs to the nature of the mind alone while imagination and sensation are, in some sense, faculties of the mind insofar as it is united with a body. Descartes devised a non-atomistic, mechanistic physics in which all physical phenomena were to be explain by the configuration and motion of a body’s miniscule parts.

The first is entitled Notes on a Program posted in 1642 in which Descartes refutes the theses of his recently estranged disciple, Henricus Regius, a professor of medicine at Utrecht
The main point is that the Causal Adequacy Principle also pertains to the causes of ideas so that, for instance, the idea of the sun must be caused by something that contains the reality of the sun either actually (formally) or in some higher form (eminently). The first argument is that he has a clear and distinct understanding of the mind as a thinking, non-extended thing and of the body as an extended, non-thinking thing. It is difficult to see how Descartes would address this issue. However, such universal deception seems inconsistent with God’s supreme goodness. It is absolutely certain because both conclusions (namely that God exists and that God cannot be a deceiver) have themselves been demonstrated from immediately grasped and absolutely certain intuitive truths. Since a place is identical with the body constituting it, how does a place retain its identity and, therefore, remain the “same” place when it is replaced by another body that now constitutes it.
René Descartes Introduction – Essay – eNotes. Buy Essay Online plant defense mechanisms Descartes and the matrix what is a resume for a. Essay sufism – write my essay essays. A second edition published in 1642 also included a seventh set of objections and replies as well as a letter to Father Dinet in which Descartes defended his system against charges of unorthodoxy. Therefore, so long as bodies of the same shape, size and position continue to replace each other, it is considered one and the same place.
It is also during this time that Descartes had regular contact with Father Marin Mersenne, who was to become his long time friend and contact with the intellectual community during his 20 years in the Netherlands. Descartes’ Open Letter led Voetius to have him summoned before the council of Utrecht, who threatened him with expulsion and the public burning of his books. GENTLEMEN, I have perused your late mathematical Prize Question, proposed in lieu of one in Natural Philosophy, for the ensuing year, viz. This is because a finite substance does not have enough reality to be the cause of this idea, for if a finite substance were the cause of this idea, then where would it have gotten the extra reality. These ideas can be examined and set aside at will but their internal content cannot be manipulated. This includes not only the mundane beliefs about reading articles or sitting by the fire but even the beliefs of experimental science are doubtful, because the observations upon which they are based may not be true but mere dream images.
Also, the actions of sensible people, who avoid the extremes and take the middle road, can provide a temporary guide to action until his moral beliefs have been established with absolute certainty. These results are sorted by most relevant first (ranked. Hence, mind and body must have two completely different natures in order for each to be able to be understood all by itself without the other. Rather, these considerations indicate to some that only the whole, physical universe is a substance, while particular bodies, for example, the wine bottle, are modes of that substance. (Isaiah 50:11) The theologians of the Middle-Ages had quite rightly begun with Scripture but if they had followed this through with observation and experiment rather than relying upon the “Ancients” e. “The roots are metaphysics, the trunk is physics, and the branches emerging from the trunk are all the other sciences, which may be reduced to three principal ones, namely medicine, mechanics and morals” (AT IXB 14: CSM I 186). The course of study was capped off with courses in metaphysics, natural philosophy and ethics.
Pythagoras had studied the occult arts in Egypt then returned to teach the Greeks). This includes the belief that I have a body endowed with sense organs. It has not yet quite lost the taste of the honey; it retains some of the scent of flowers from which it was gathered; its color shape and size are plain to see; it is hard, cold and can be handled without difficulty; if you rap it with your knuckle it makes a sound. First, notice that metaphysics constitutes the roots securing the rest of the tree. While engaged in such a comprehensive revision of our beliefs, Descartes supposed it prudent to adhere to a modest, conventional way of life that provides a secure and comfortable environment in which to pursue serious study. Search to find a specific psychology essay: brain is.
If such sensations are just dreams, then it is not really the case that you are reading this article but in fact you are in bed asleep. He then replaced the uncertain premises derived from sensation with the absolute certainty of the clear and distinct ideas perceived by the mind alone, as will be explained below. In the Principles, part I, sections 32 and 48, Descartes distinguishes intellectual perception and volition as what properly belongs to the nature of the mind alone while imagination and sensation are, in some sense, faculties of the mind insofar as it is united with a body. Third, this clear and distinct understanding shows that God can bring about anything understood in this way. Second, a real distinction is perceived when one substance can be clearly and distinctly understood without the other and vice versa. In one such cache Pott (1891, 45) explains: There are upwards of sixty letters from Anthony Stauden to Anthony Bacon. Not much is known about his early childhood, but René is thought to have been a sickly and fragile child, so much so that when he was sent to board at the Jesuit college at La Fleche on Easter of 1607.

More Descartes Essay

This indicates that Descartes’ later moral theory is really an extension of his earlier thought with the second and third maxims at its core. She cannot set aside the sensory idea of heat by merely willing it as we can do with our idea of Santa Claus, for example. By following this maxim, Descartes hopes to avoid the regrets experienced by those who set out on a supposedly good course that they later judge to be bad. This first indubitable truth will then serve as an intuitively grasped metaphysical “axiom” from which absolutely certain knowledge can be deduced. Hence, most things are out of his control. Parts of a essay outline and recycling papers essays, recreation essays.
Hence, the human being would be causing itself to move and would have sensations and, therefore, the problem of causal interaction between mind and body is avoided altogether
This “old” philosophy is Aristotle’s as it was appropriated and interpreted throughout the later medieval period. The progress and certainty of mathematical knowledge, Descartes supposed, provide an emulable model for a similarly productive philosophical method, characterized by four simple rules: Accept as true only what is indubitable. At the beginning of the Fourth Meditation, Descartes claims that the will to deceive is “undoubtedly evidence of malice or weakness” so as to be an imperfection. It is also during this time that Descartes had regular contact with Father Marin Mersenne, who was to become his long time friend and contact with the intellectual community during his 20 years in the Netherlands. René Descartes has long been credited with the near-single-handed creation of modern philosophy. Descartes explains it best at Principles, part 1, section 60.
It is difficult to see why the fourth maxim is included. The variety of different movements of the animals spirits cause a variety of different sensations not in the part of the body originally affected but only in the brain and ultimately in the pineal gland. Descartes continues to wonder about whether or not God could make him believe there is an earth, sky and other extended things when, in fact, these things do not exist at all. This is because an empty space, according to Descartes, would just be a non-extended space, which is impossible.
Indeed, any attempt to conceive of God as not existing would be like trying to conceive of a mountain without a valley – it just cannot be done. Humans, however, are endowed with minds or rational souls, and therefore they can use language and feel sensations like hunger, thirst, and pain. Hence, before even attempting to plant this tree, Descartes must first figure out a method for doing so. This mistake should be avoided by clearly distinguishing the idea of the mind from the idea of the body. Moreover, since finite substances require only God’s concurrence to exist and modes require a finite substance and God, finite substances are more real than modes. Yet Descartes still admits that both animal and human bodies can be best understood to be “machine[s] made of earth, which God forms. ” This allows these fibers to float freely so that anything causing the slightest motion anywhere in the body will cause movement in that part of the brain where the fiber is attached. In this way, Descartes hopes to avoid the regret experienced by those who have desires that cannot be satisfied, because this satisfaction lies beyond their grasp so that one should not desire health when ill nor freedom when imprisoned.
The main point is that the Causal Adequacy Principle also pertains to the causes of ideas so that, for instance, the idea of the sun must be caused by something that contains the reality of the sun either actually (formally) or in some higher form (eminently). It is difficult to see how Descartes would address this issue. However, such universal deception seems inconsistent with God’s supreme goodness. Since a place is identical with the body constituting it, how does a place retain its identity and, therefore, remain the “same” place when it is replaced by another body that now constitutes it.
René Descartes Introduction – Essay – eNotes. Buy Essay Online plant defense mechanisms Descartes and the matrix what is a resume for a. Essay sufism – write my essay essays. ” Although he does not examine other occupations, Descartes is content with his current work because of the pleasure he receives from discovering new and not widely known truths. A second edition published in 1642 also included a seventh set of objections and replies as well as a letter to Father Dinet in which Descartes defended his system against charges of unorthodoxy. This traveler should not wander about or even stand still for then he will never find his way. Therefore, so long as bodies of the same shape, size and position continue to replace each other, it is considered one and the same place.
It is also during this time that Descartes had regular contact with Father Marin Mersenne, who was to become his long time friend and contact with the intellectual community during his 20 years in the Netherlands. Descartes’ Open Letter led Voetius to have him summoned before the council of Utrecht, who threatened him with expulsion and the public burning of his books. GENTLEMEN, I have perused your late mathematical Prize Question, proposed in lieu of one in Natural Philosophy, for the ensuing year, viz. This is because a finite substance does not have enough reality to be the cause of this idea, for if a finite substance were the cause of this idea, then where would it have gotten the extra reality. This includes not only the mundane beliefs about reading articles or sitting by the fire but even the beliefs of experimental science are doubtful, because the observations upon which they are based may not be true but mere dream images.
Also, the actions of sensible people, who avoid the extremes and take the middle road, can provide a temporary guide to action until his moral beliefs have been established with absolute certainty. Hence, mind and body must have two completely different natures in order for each to be able to be understood all by itself without the other. Rather, these considerations indicate to some that only the whole, physical universe is a substance, while particular bodies, for example, the wine bottle, are modes of that substance. (Isaiah 50:11) The theologians of the Middle-Ages had quite rightly begun with Scripture but if they had followed this through with observation and experiment rather than relying upon the “Ancients” e.
These considerations in general, and this quotation in particular, lead to another distinct feature of Cartesian body, namely that extension is infinitely divisible. Descartes’ point is that even though the senses deceive us some of the time, what basis for doubt exists for the immediate belief that, for example, you are reading this article. More recently, the works of the Italian philosopher-historian, Paolo Rossi, have been translated and in his Francis Bacon (1968,25) makes the statement: It [Bacon’s programme] recurs with further alterations in the Novum Organum and De Augmentis, but he did not set it down in its final consistent form till the New Atlantis, in a passage describing Salomon’s House, where it is no longer presented as a project but as a Utopian dream. Here Descartes is espousing a causal theory that implies whatever is possessed by an effect must have been given to it by its cause.
This is based on the realization that all that is in his control are his own thoughts and nothing else. I found the essay rather odd, partly because I have some confusion about the nature of. From these intuitively grasped, absolutely certain truths, Descartes now goes on to deduce the existence of something other than himself, namely God. Descartes goes on to apply this principle to the cause of his ideas. In that letter, Descartes distinguishes between various primitive notions. Cogito ergo sum is a Latin philosophical proposition by René Descartes usually translated into English as "I think, therefore I am". A well-known version of dualism is credited to Rene Descartes of the 17 th century. Also, during these later years, the Meditations and Principles were translated from Latin into French for a wider, more popular audience and were published in 1647.
Therefore, body and space have the same extension in that body is not impenetrable extension and space penetrable extension, but rather there is only one kind of extension. From this it follows that mind and body cannot have the same nature, for if this were true, then the same thing would be both divisible and not divisible, which is impossible. Francis Bacon and His Secret Society. Example Psychology Essays – UK Essays work of our professional essay writers and are free.
The exact meaning of the symbolism in these vivid dreams has been the subject of much dispute, see Maritain, 1944. History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe. 1) Descartes’ first dream was that a tempestuous wind was whirling him about in the street as he struggled, hardly able to keep his feet, to reach the church of the College (of LaFleche) to say his prayers; at the very moment he turned to show courtesy to a man he had neglected to greet, the wind blew him violently against the church; soon someone, in the middle of the college courtyard, told him that an acquaintance of his bad something-a melon-to give him. So imagination and sensation are faculties of the mind in a weaker sense than intellect and will, since they require a body in order to perform their functions.
[wpsed_silo_structure links=5]
  “The Stuff that Dreams are Made Of”
<http://www. This principle indicates that something will remain in a given state as long as it is not being affected by some external cause. Descartes maintains further that all sensations depend on the nerves, which extend from the brain to the body’s extremities in the form of tiny fibers encased by tube-like membranes. However, although this may apply to sensations derived under certain circumstances, doesn’t it seem certain that “I am here, sitting by the fire, wearing a winter dressing gown, holding this piece of paper in my hands, and so on”. ” After discarding the traditional Scholastic-Aristotelian concept of a human being as a rational animal due to the inherent difficulties of defining “rational” and “animal,” he finally concludes that he is a thinking thing, a mind: “A thing that doubts, understands, affirms, denies, is willing, is unwilling, and also imagines and has sense perceptions” (AT VII 28: CSM II 19). This change in thinking began in the sixteen-hundreds and has continued into the present day but two names are recognized by historians as being responsible for initiating this humanist world-view. In the Principles, part I, sections 32 and 48, Descartes distinguishes intellectual perception and volition as what properly belongs to the nature of the mind alone while imagination and sensation are, in some sense, faculties of the mind insofar as it is united with a body.
It is difficult to see why the fourth maxim is included. The variety of different movements of the animals spirits cause a variety of different sensations not in the part of the body originally affected but only in the brain and ultimately in the pineal gland. Descartes continues to wonder about whether or not God could make him believe there is an earth, sky and other extended things when, in fact, these things do not exist at all. This is because an empty space, according to Descartes, would just be a non-extended space, which is impossible.
Indeed, any attempt to conceive of God as not existing would be like trying to conceive of a mountain without a valley – it just cannot be done. Humans, however, are endowed with minds or rational souls, and therefore they can use language and feel sensations like hunger, thirst, and pain. Hence, before even attempting to plant this tree, Descartes must first figure out a method for doing so. This mistake should be avoided by clearly distinguishing the idea of the mind from the idea of the body. Moreover, since finite substances require only God’s concurrence to exist and modes require a finite substance and God, finite substances are more real than modes. Yet Descartes still admits that both animal and human bodies can be best understood to be “machine[s] made of earth, which God forms. ” This allows these fibers to float freely so that anything causing the slightest motion anywhere in the body will cause movement in that part of the brain where the fiber is attached. In this way, Descartes hopes to avoid the regret experienced by those who have desires that cannot be satisfied, because this satisfaction lies beyond their grasp so that one should not desire health when ill nor freedom when imprisoned.
The main point is that the Causal Adequacy Principle also pertains to the causes of ideas so that, for instance, the idea of the sun must be caused by something that contains the reality of the sun either actually (formally) or in some higher form (eminently). It is difficult to see how Descartes would address this issue. However, such universal deception seems inconsistent with God’s supreme goodness. Since a place is identical with the body constituting it, how does a place retain its identity and, therefore, remain the “same” place when it is replaced by another body that now constitutes it.
René Descartes Introduction – Essay – eNotes. Buy Essay Online plant defense mechanisms Descartes and the matrix what is a resume for a. Essay sufism – write my essay essays. A second edition published in 1642 also included a seventh set of objections and replies as well as a letter to Father Dinet in which Descartes defended his system against charges of unorthodoxy. Therefore, so long as bodies of the same shape, size and position continue to replace each other, it is considered one and the same place.
It is also during this time that Descartes had regular contact with Father Marin Mersenne, who was to become his long time friend and contact with the intellectual community during his 20 years in the Netherlands. Descartes’ Open Letter led Voetius to have him summoned before the council of Utrecht, who threatened him with expulsion and the public burning of his books. GENTLEMEN, I have perused your late mathematical Prize Question, proposed in lieu of one in Natural Philosophy, for the ensuing year, viz. This is because a finite substance does not have enough reality to be the cause of this idea, for if a finite substance were the cause of this idea, then where would it have gotten the extra reality. These ideas can be examined and set aside at will but their internal content cannot be manipulated. This includes not only the mundane beliefs about reading articles or sitting by the fire but even the beliefs of experimental science are doubtful, because the observations upon which they are based may not be true but mere dream images.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *